Ankara, Turkey – In the past decade, Turkey has acquired a stronger global position as a rising power, straddling from Europe to Asia and encircled by Black Sea, Aegean and Mediterranean. In terms of its economic capabilities, unique geographic position and political significance, Turkey has become one of the most dominant actors in its periphery and beyond the region.
Turkey’s power is on the rise and there are a number of reasons for that position and status. There are two main components behind Turkey’s rise: strong economy and activism in foreign policy. These components together with Turkey’s domestic political transformation have also reflections on Turkey’s relations with the European Union (EU), United States, Russia and China. Recently, Turkey’s rising power, and reflection of Turkey’s rising power on global relations has been a hot subject of discussion.
A global power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. Global powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause middle or small powers to consider the global powers’ opinions before taking actions of their own. International relations theorists have posited that global power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status dimensions.
While some nations are widely considered to be global powers, there is no definitive list of them. Sometimes the status of global powers is formally recognized in conferences. Accordingly, the status of global powers has also been formally and informally recognized in forums.
The term “global power” was first used to represent the most important powers, and the formalization of the division between small powers and global powers has shifted numerous times, most dramatically during World War I and World War II.
There are no set or defined characteristics of a global power. These characteristics have often been treated as empirical, self-evident to the assessor. However, this approach has the disadvantage of subjectivity. As a result, there have been attempts to derive some common criteria and to treat these as essential elements of global power status. Three central characteristics, which termed as “power, spatial, and status dimensions,” that distinguish global powers from other states. The characteristics is extracted from the discussion of these three dimensions.
Early writings on the subject tended to judge states by the realist criterion, the test of a global power is the test of strength for war. Later research have expanded this test, attempting to define power in terms of overall military, economic, and political capacity. A set of five criteria is used to determine global power: population and territory; resource endowment; economic capability; political stability and competence; and military strength. These expanded criteria can be divided into three heads: power, spatial , and status dimensions (capabilities).
Power dimension is a significant sole criterion, even under the more expansive tests, power retains a vital place.
This aspect has received mixed treatment, with some confusion as to the degree of power required. Research have approached the concept of global power with differing conceptualizations of the world situation, from multipolarity to overwhelming hegemony. A global power is one which is capable of preserving its own independence against any other single power.
This differed from earlier research, if one could establish as a definition of a global power that it must be able to maintain itself against all others, even when they are united, these positions have been the subject of criticism.
All states have a geographic scope of interests, actions, or projected power. This is a crucial factor in distinguishing a global power from a regional power; by definition the scope of a regional power is restricted to its region. It has been suggested that a global power should be possessed of actual influence throughout the scope of the prevailing international system. Global power may be defined as a political force exerting an effect co-extensive with the widest range of the society in which it operates.
Other suggestions have been made that a global power should have the capacity to engage in extra-regional affairs and that a global power ought to be possessed of extra-regional interests, two propositions which are often closely connected.
Formal or informal acknowledgment of a nation’s global power status has also been a criterion for being a global power. The status of global power is sometimes confused with the condition of being powerful. It evolved from the role played by the global military states, but the global power system institutionalizes the position of the powerful state in a web of rights and obligations.
It has been suggested that global power status can arise by implication by judging the nature of a state’s relations with other global powers.
A further option is to examine a state’s willingness to act as a global power. As a nation will seldom declare that it is acting as such, this usually entails a retrospective examination of state conduct. As a result, this is of limited use in establishing the nature of contemporary powers, at least not without the exercise of subjective observation.
Other important criteria are that global powers should have enough influence to be included in discussions of contemporary political and diplomatic questions and exercise influence on the final outcome and resolution. Geopolitically, when major political questions were addressed, several global powers met to discuss them. Before the era of groups like the United Nations, participants of such meetings were not officially named but rather were decided based on their global power status. These were conferences which settled important questions based on major geopolitical events.
Global Power Countries
Consequently, China, Russia, and the United States are often referred to as the current global powers due to their political and economic dominance of the global arena. However, there is no unanimous agreement among authorities as to the current status of these powers or what precisely defines a global power.
On the other side, the current emerging powers such as Brazil, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Turkey are referred to as middle powers in global power system.
Global powers are disproportionately engaged in alliances and wars, and their diplomatic weight is often cemented by their strong role in international institutions and forums. This unequal distribution of power and prestige leads to “a set of rights and rules governing interactions among states” that sees incumbent powers competing to maintain the status quo and keep their global influence.
In today’s international system, there are four great powers that fit this definition: the United States, Russia, China and the European Union (whereby the EU is considered to be the sum of its parts). If one distils from this description of global power attributes and capabilities a list of criteria, it is clear why these four powers dominate the international security debate. The possession of superior military and economic capabilities can be translated into measurements such as military, economic, and diplomatic influence in the international system.
Global Fair Order
As a global power Turkey positions a military presence in 15 countries across the globe, and the Turkish Army ranked second largest power in NATO after the United States. As part of independent foreign policy Turkey is openly advocating and voicing the concerns, rights and interests of oppressed nations across the globe.
Under the change in the global economy, people are being pushed towards a certain direction through their lives, bloods, sweats and future. Countries and societies, almost held to ransom by means of overt and covert threats, are being forced to finance this imperialist crooked system established after the Second World War.
Turkey critically voices its objection to this injustice, unlawfulness and tyranny at every platform. The world is bigger than five is the biggest-ever rise against global injustice. Turkey will maintain this objection of injustice, which draws larger support each passing day, until a more just global order of government is established.
Turkey raises the same objection to the crookedness in the field of economy, too. As Turkey works to achieve the economic growth Turkey aims for with its infrastructure and superstructure, Turkey constantly comes under below-the-belt hits and face efforts to slow down. This is the case mainly because of sense of development which is built upon sharing and developing jointly with brothers instead of exploitation and a greed for unlimited production and consumption.
The end is near for those who want democracy, freedoms, justice and welfare only for themselves, and become the biggest fascist, dictator and colonialist when it comes to others. The World conscience can no longer bear this much injustice and this much oppression under the current imperialist power system. More just, more peaceful, more secure and more prosperous days are near for the entire humanity.