Ankara, Turkey – The Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal Pasha launched the Great Offensive 98 years ago, in which one of the world’s greatest heroic epics was written. The Great attack of the Turkish army under the command of the great leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, which started on August 26 and ended in victory on August 30, and the Battle of the commander-in-chief, has gone down in history as one of the greatest heroic epics seen in the history of the world.
The Turkish army under the command of the great leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, 98 years ago today, one of the greatest heroic legends seen in the history of the world by writing, to expel the occupation forces from the homeland, the fire of independence, by launching the Great Offensive lit.
After the first World War in 1919, the Entente States began to invade Anatolia under various pretexts based on the provisions of the Armistice treaty of Mondros, and the Turkish nation, whose army arsenal was taken away, tried to be left in a difficult situation.
In the days of the occupation described by the famous author Halide Edip Adıvar in his book “The Test of the Turks with fire”, the Entente Navy settled in Istanbul, the French in Adana, the British in Urfa, Maraş, Samsun and Merzifon, the Italians in Antalya and the southwest of Anatolia.
On 15 May 1919, with the permission of the Entente States, the Greek Army landed in Izmir.
In the face of this situation, the Turkish nation has started the “Kuvayimilliye” movement against the occupation in the “consciousness of being a nation” it has shown throughout history. There were two options; either surrender to the occupation forces or a destroyed, burned country would rise up again with the determination of its indomitable sons and rise from the Ashes.
Upon the opening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in 1920, the occupying forces concentrated all their repressive policies on Atatürk and his comrades-in-arms, especially on the Western Front. To repel the Greek army that came to Polatlı in 1921, it fell to the Sons of the homeland who had written in gold letters the word “Çanakkale impassable” in the historical literature a few years earlier.
After a year-long preparation period in order to completely expel the enemy army, which had been stopped after 22 days and 22 nights of bloody fighting in Sakaria, Commander-in-chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha launched the great offensive on August 26, 1922.
At dawn on 26 August in Kocatepe…
Commander-in-chief Mustafa Kemal took his place in Kocatepe, which remained on the borders of Afyonkarahisar, to lead the battle with the Chief of General Staff Fevzi Pasha (Çakmak) and the commander of the Western Front Ismet Pasha (Inönü) on the morning of August 26.
In the continuation of the operation, which began at dawn with artillery fire, the Turkish military attacked at the first light of the morning and captured Tinaztepe and drove the enemy away from Belentepe and Kalecik.
On the first day of the offensive 1. Army units, 15 kilometers between the Great Kaleciktepe and Çiğiltepe area, captured the enemy’s first line positions. The 5th Cavalry Corps carried out successful attacks on the transport arms behind the enemy, while the 2nd Army continued its detection mission on the front line without interruption.
On the morning of 27 August, the Turkish army again attacked on all fronts, and on the same day, Afyonkarahisar was liberated from enemy occupation by the 8th Division. The successful offensive on 28 and 29 August resulted in the neutralization of the enemy’s 5th Division.On the night of 29 August, the commanders assessed the situation and agreed that the attack should be concluded soon, and the necessary measures were taken to ensure that the plan was implemented without disruption on 30 August.
Great victory and a broken cart
On the eve of the most important victory won by the Turkish army in the war of independence, commander Mustafa Kemal Pasha ordered an attack on the troops in Zafertepe Çalköy in Altintaş District of Kütahya, which is now in town, on the morning of August 30.
In the Battle of Dumlupinar, which he personally led, the hero Mehmetçik completely surrounded the Greek troops on both sides of the road of Alliören, goats, Kızıltaş Creek and destroyed them. Some Greek troops, General Trikopis, General Diyenis and many Greek commanders fled from the area that remained open in the Redstone Creek area.
The day after the Great Victory, on 31 August, Commander-in-chief Mustafa Kemal put a map of the battle areas on the broken cart in the garden of a house in Zafertepe, Çalköy, United with Fevzi Pasha and Ismet Pasha in the view of entering Izmir in order to prevent the Greeks from re-entering the defence system and to defeat them.
“Armies, your first objective is the Mediterranean, forward!”
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, after the Great Victory on September 1 Dumlupinar, all the officers and privates on the Western Front issued a statement to be read, gave the following statements:
“The armies of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, in the Great Battle of Afyonkarahisar-Dumlupınar, you destroyed the basic existence of a cruel and proud army in an unimaginable little time. You have proven yourself worthy of the sacrifices of our great and distinguished nation. Our great Turkish nation is right to trust in its future. I have been closely watching your achievements and sacrifices on the battlefield. I will never let go of my duty to mediate the transmission of our nation’s praise to you. I have ordered that a proposal be made to the commander-in-chief for the award be made to the Front Command.
I demand that all my friends move forward, considering that there will be other battles in Anatolia, and that everyone will continue the competition with all his might, using the resources of his intellect and patriotism. Armies, your first objective is the Mediterranean, forward!”
The liberation of Kütahya on August 27 was followed by the liberation of Afyonkarahisar on August 30, the liberation of Gediz on September 1, the liberation of Emet and Tavşanlı on September 3, and the Turkish army, which poured the Greek army into the sea in Izmir on September 9, carried out Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s order with great success.
He committed suicide because he failed to fulfill his promise.
One of the most important events left in minds from the Great Offensive was the death of Colonel Reşat Bey, Commander of the 57th Division, on 27 August after half an hour delay in the capture of Çiğiltepe by shooting himself with the regret of not being able to fulfill his duty.
On the first and second day of the offensive, the Turkish troops started the Great Offensive with the orders given from Kocatepe and began to take over all the hills. The following phone call passed between Colonel Reşat Bey, Commander of the 57th Division, who resisted the Greek soldiers in çiğiltepe, and Mustafa Kemal Pasha.:
Colonel Reşat Bey, who was unable to take Çiğiltepe from the enemy soldiers in the next half hour, committed suicide with his own pistol saying, “I cannot live because I have not fulfilled my promise.”Mustafa Kemal Pasha was told that Colonel Reşat Bey had committed suicide when he phoned the 57th Division commander who was fighting on the ridge of Çiğiltepe and read his note that “although I promised you to take that position within half an hour, I cannot live because I have not made my promise”.
Çiğiltepe was rescued from enemy soldiers 15 minutes after Colonel Reşat Bey’s death.
The Victory of Malazgirt
The victory of Malazgirt is of great importance in Turkish history. The Battle of Malazgirt was the battle that took place on 26 August 1071 between the Great Seljuk Ruler Alparslan and the Byzantine Emperor Romanian Diogene. The Battle of Malazgirt, which resulted in the victory of Alp Arslan, is known as “the last battle that gave the Turks a decisive victory at the gates of Anatolia”.
Why Does the Battle of Malazgirt Matter?
The Battle of Malazgirt led to decisive results both in the short and long term in terms of Turkish, Islamic and world history. In the decade after the war, Muslims reached the western ends of Anatolia and by 1075, the foundations of the Seljuk State of Turkey, based in Iznik, had been laid. While a new era was opened in the Islamic world under the leadership of the Seljuk Sultans, the Byzantine Empire entered a period of dissolution that would continue until the conquest of Istanbul in 1453.
Where is Malazgirt?
According to today’s borders, Malazgirt is located in Muş. It is located in the middle of the cities of Van, Ağrı, Erzurum, as the location. The distance to the city center of Malazgirt by road is 137 km and it is the most remote district to the center. The area of the district is 1534 square km and it is located on a flat area.