Tripoli, Libya – The French presence in Africa dates to the 17th century, but the main period of colonial expansion came in the 19th century with the invasion of Ottoman Algiers in 1830, conquests in West and Equatorial Africa during the so-called scramble for Africa and the establishment of protectorates in Tunisia and Morocco in the decades before the First World War. To these were added parts of German Togo and Cameroon, assigned to France as League of Nations mandates after the war.
By 1930, French colonial Africa encompassed the vast confederations of French West Africa (1895) and French Equatorial Africa (1905), the western Maghreb, the Indian Ocean islands of Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros, and Djibouti in the Horn of Africa. Within this African empire, territories in sub-Saharan Africa were treated primarily as colonies of exploitation, while a settler colonial model guided colonization efforts in the Maghreb, although only Algeria drew many European immigrants.
Throughout Africa, French rule was characterized by sharp contradictions between a rhetorical commitment to the “civilization” of indigenous people through cultural, political, and economic reform, and the harsh realities of violent conquest, economic exploitation, legal inequality, and sociocultural disruption.
At the same time, French domination was never as complete as the solid blue swathes on maps of “Greater France” would suggest. As in all empires, colonized people throughout French Africa developed strategies to resist or evade French authority, subvert or co-opt the so-called civilizing mission, and cope with the upheavals of occupation.
After the First World War, new and more organized forms of contestation emerged, as Western-educated reformers, nationalists, and trade unions pressed by a variety of means for a more equitable distribution of political and administrative power.
Frustrated in the interwar period, these demands for change spurred the process of decolonization after the Second World War. Efforts by French authorities and some African leaders to replace imperial rule with a federal organization failed, and following a 1958 constitutional referendum, almost all French territories in sub-Saharan Africa claimed their independence.
In North Africa, Tunisian and Moroccan nationalists were able to force the French to negotiate independence in the 1950s, but decolonization in Algeria, with its million European settlers, came only after a protracted and brutal war (1954–1962) that left deep scars in both postcolonial states. Although formal French rule in Africa had ended by 1962, the ties it forged continue to shape relations between France and its former colonial territories throughout the continent.
France has actively been meddling in African politics, even after the independences of former French colonies in the 60ies the French governments have publicly backed African dictators who actually serve French interests rather than the African people.
On top of that the Francafrique who is a type of mafia-like shadowy organization between France and the dictators of Africa, is still pulling all the string of everyday politics in Africa. It’s time for the French to get out of African politics and allow Africa to elect its own leaders.
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said more than a total of ten thousand African students graduate from Turkish universities so far. Turkish President praised high level cooperation between Turkey and Africa in various fields.
“As a result of our efforts, we have brought up Turkey-Africa relations to a level that could not have been even imagined 15 years ago,” President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said during his speech at 3rd African Muslim Religious Leaders summit on October 22, 2019 in Istanbul, Turkey.
Erdogan stressed : “We increased the number of Turkish embassies in the African continent from 12 to 42.”
Erdogan underlined that more than a total of ten thousand African students who graduated from Turkish universities serve their countries as Turkey’s “peace ambassadors”.
“Our bilateral trade, which reached $24 billion, is increasing day by day, tourism is developing, cooperation between the [African] countries and Turkey is strengthening, and the number of mutual visits is increasing at every level,” Erdogan said.
Erdogan expressed determination that the trade volume between Turkey and Africa will exceed $50 billion dollars in the coming period.
“We strive to increase the number, capacity and potentialities of our diplomatic missions in African countries,” he stressed.
Erdogan added that Turkish non-governmental organizations help Turkey’s “African brothers and sisters” all over the continent by taking serious risks.
“Beyond selling products, Turkish investors are focusing on projects that create employment and enable the development and strengthening of Africa,” Erdogan highlighted.
A presidential motion to extend the period of the permit granted to send troops to Libya by 18 months was submitted to the presidency of the parliament. In a statement presented with the signature of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, efforts to build democratic institutions in Libya following the events of February 2011 have been disrupted by increased armed conflicts, and a fragmented structure has emerged in the country.
After the establishment of a ceasefire in Libya, ensuring political integrity and establishing a functioning state mechanism, the Libyan Political Agreement was signed on 17 December 2015 in Suheirat, Morocco, as a result of the Libyan Political Dialogue, conducted with the participation of all parties in Libya and lasted for almost a year, facilitated by the United Nations (UN), ensuring the establishment of peace and stability in Libya.
In accordance with UN Security Council (UNSC) resolution 2259 (2015), the national memorandum government (UMH) established under the Libyan Political Agreement is recognized by the international community as the only and legitimate government representing Libya, the resolution 2259 of the UNSC calls for the support of the implementation of the Libyan Political Agreement and the Libyan organizations referred to in the agreement, including the UMH.
The proposal has a place in the political agreement in Libya that, in this context, the alleged illegitimate nature of national and international respect the Libyan National Army, 4 April 2019 in the capital, Tripoli, with the aim of overthrowing UMH seize and initiated the targeting of civilians and civilian infrastructure in Libya, which threaten the integrity and stability of, daesh, al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations that creates a suitable environment for attacks by illegal armed groups on illegal migration and human trafficking in Turkey was reported to have requested support from UMH December 2019.
In the subsequent process, the UMH stopped these attacks that meant the integrity of the country, thereby preventing Libya from being dragged into chaos and instability that would pose a security risk to Turkey and the entire region, and the UN facilitated, Libyans-led and owned ceasefire and political dialogue in the country could be paving the way for:
“Turkey continues its strong support for the protection of Libya’s sovereignty, territorial integrity and political unity, the establishment of a permanent ceasefire in the country, and the political dialogue efforts that will ensure national reconciliation, carried out under international legitimacy within the framework of the UN-led UN resolutions. Maritime jurisdiction in the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Libya which was signed and came into force an agreement on the limitation of muhtirasi between the two countries with more developed historical, economic and political when you are considering a strong relationship, a ceasefire and political dialogue in Libya, the continuation of the process with peace and stability for Turkey as a result of this process are of great importance.”
In this context, Turkey’s security and military cooperation memorandum signed with Libya and entered into force within the scope of the security and military cooperation memorandum that will contribute to the security of Libya continues to provide training and consulting support, at the current stage of the permanent ceasefire and political dialogue process in Libya to be concluded and institutions to be unified
The so-called Libyan National Army, with the support of foreign forces, continued military fortifications in Central and eastern Libya, the statement said, stressing that it is important to prevent the resumption of conflicts, ensuring the conclusion of military and political negotiations conducted under the auspices of the UN.
In this context, Turkey’s interests in both the Mediterranean basin and North Africa will be negatively affected if the attacks and conflicts of the so-called Libyan National Army resume, as well as the risks and threats that cause joy for the entire region, including Turkey, were noted in the
“With these considerations, any threat to Turkey’s national interests against international law to take all necessary measures within the framework of risk and security in Libya of illegitimate armed groups and terrorist organizations may pursue interests in Libya to thwart the attacks by Turkey, to ensure the maintenance of our national security against other possible risks such as mass migration, humanitarian aid deliver to the needs of the Libyan people, requested by all UMH resume support, developments that may occur after this process to protect and preserve its supreme interests effectively in the direction of Turkey’s development according to the course of policy to avoid a situation difficult to remedy in the future to assist with rapid and dynamic monitoring of the border, scope, quantity, and time in a manner that is appreciated and to be appointed by the president, the Turkish Armed Forces if necessary to foreign countries be sent on operations outside the borders of Turkey and intervention, January 2 January 2020 in accordance with Article 92 of the Constitution and No. 1238 of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in order to make arrangements to be made in accordance with the principles to be determined by the president in order to take all measures to eliminate risks and threats with the use of these forces in accordance with the principles determined by the president, I submit to you the need to extend the period of the permit for 18 months from January 2, 2021.”
Openly, France, Germany, Greece, Russia, Egypt, UAE, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, support putchist warlord Khalifa Haftar who is committing mass massacres in Libya to capture UN recognized UMH government in Tripoli, Western Libya.
Libyan factions sign UN deal to form unity government
Delegates from Libya’s warring factions signed a UN-brokered agreement to form a national unity government, a deal that Western powers hope will bring stability and help to combat a growing Islamic State presence.
Libya’s Tripoli-based General National Congress (GNC) representative Salih el-Mahzum and Libya’s Tobruk-based government’s representative Muhammed Shuayb, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General and Head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) Martin Kobler and Morocco’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Salaheddine Mezouar (C) hold a news conference after signing the “Libyan Political Agreement” in Suheirat, Morocco December 17, 2015.
Four years after Muammar Gaddafi’s fall, Libya is deeply fractured, with a self-declared government in Tripoli and an internationally recognized one in the east – each backed by coalitions of former rebels and militias.
The UN deal calls for a presidential council to lead a unified government, but hardliners in both factions reject it and questions remain about how it will be implemented in a country where rival armed brigades hold the key to power.
Chants of “Libya! Libya!” erupted as representatives from both parliaments signed the accord along with local councils and political parties in the Moroccan coastal town of Skhirat, after more than a year of hard-scrabble negotiations.
“The doors remain wide open to those who are not here today,” UN envoy Martin Kobler said at the ceremony, attended by regional foreign ministers. “The signing of the political agreement is only the first step.”
Western officials believe war fatigue, promises of foreign aid, the strain on Libya’s oil economy and the common threat of Islamic State will help to build momentum for the national government and bring opponents on board.
Under the deal, a nine-member presidential council will form a government, with the current, eastern-based House of Representatives as the main legislature, and a State Council as a second, consultative chamber. The presidential council will name a new government in a month and a UN Security Council resolution will endorse it.
“There are some people who want to hold on to little kingdoms, but very, very small kingdoms, little tiny patches where they hold authority, but Libya’s going to move on,” US envoy to Libya Jonathan Winer told Reuters. “Ultimately, Libyans have to be responsible for Libya.”
The US State Department said Washington was committed to providing the unified government with “full political backing and technical, economic, security and counterterrorism assistance”.
Still, the agreement faces questions from critics about how representative the proposed government will be, how it will set up in Tripoli, and how various armed factions on the ground will react to a new government. Some brand it a UN-imposed deal.
Some of Libya’s armed brigades have backed the deal, while others are closely allied with political leaders who oppose it.
“We have reached an agreement, but the biggest challenge now is to implement it,” said Salah Huma, a member of parliament and negotiator for the eastern-based government.
The chiefs of the two rival parliaments have already rejected the UN deal and called for more time to negotiate a Libyan initiative, though diplomats say both men may face international sanctions for blocking a vote on the agreement.
Since revolution ousted Gaddafi, Libya has struggled with almost constant instability as heavily armed brigades of former rebels and their political allies wrestled for control of the vast country and its oil resources.
Battered by protests and attacks, the oil production that accounts for most government revenue is now less than half of the 1.6 million barrels per day that it was before 2011. Major ports and pipelines are still closed, locking exports in.
Last year, fighting intensified when one armed faction took over Tripoli, set up its own government and reinstated the previous parliament, the General National Congress. Since then, the internationally recognized government and the elected House of Representatives have operated out of the east of the country.
In the chaos, Islamic State militants have steadily expanded their presence, taking over the city of Sirte, attacking a hotel and a prison in Tripoli, ransacking oilfields to the south of Sirte and executing a group of Egyptian Christians.
Western officials say the priority after making the political agreement work will be securing Tripoli for the new administration and then rebuilding a national army with training and equipment. It may also include foreign advisers.
“Building the Libyan army and the police would not come overnight, you wouldn’t wake up and all the militias are gone,” Kobler said. “This is a long process, and the army has an important role and has to be unified.”