Moscow, Russia – Russia has begun deploying the next generation of Nebo-M anti-missile radar facility systems as part of a responsive measure to a threat stemming from NATO anti-ballistic missile systems in Eastern Europe.

“The mobile multi-range programmable Nebo-M complex is capable of performing the tasks of providing information on small-sized aerodynamic and hypersonic targets in a difficult jamming background, as well as providing information for anti-missile weapon systems.

The development and deployment of next-gen anti-missile systems featuring Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology is a top priority for the Russian Defense Ministry, as US anti-ballistic missile system are springing up in Romania, Turkey, Poland, and even in Spain.

The new Nebo-M 3-D radar system features a programmable multi-band design. The complex includes central data fusion and command post module as well as three radars, all deployed on separate high-mobility 8 x 8 24-ton vehicles. According to Aviatioweek, radars feed data to the command post using high-speed narrow-beam digital data links in the microwave band.

The radar is designed to automatically detect and track airborne targets such as ballistic missiles, stealth aircraft, or drones, as well as hypersonic targets. In the circular scan mode the complex is able to track up to 200 aerodynamic targets at a distance and at altitudes of up to 600 kilometers. In sector scan mode, Nebo-M can track to 20 ballistic targets at ranges of up to 1,800 kilometers and at an altitude of up to 1,200 kilometers.

In October, the Russian Defense Ministry unveiled plans to build several new anti-missile radars in order to cover the entire territory of Russia by 2020. Moscow also announced that an early warning radar station in the western Kaliningrad Region would be put on full combat duty by the year’s end.

The Russian Defense Ministry completed the deployment of the latest Nebo-M and Podlet radars in the Far East. Now the air defense can detect aircraft, drones, cruise missiles and hypersonic craft at a distance of hundreds of kilometers. The target data will be transmitted in real-time to launchers. The air defense has been reinforced by Fundament-M automatic control system. The single radar shield previously existed only in Crimea.

Russian Defense Ministry sources said the new radars were supplied to a brigade in the Far East. They were previously deployed in Crimea. Nebo-M was supplied there in early 2018.

Modern radars and air defense have always been supplied to border areas to monitor the neighbors and prevent a surprise strike. The situation in the Far East is not quiet. The United States plays a major role in the region. It keeps military bases in Japan, South Korea and other Asian countries to interfere in their affairs. The USA often makes sharp statements against China. The situation will hardly change. The Americans have been investing huge money in their bases for half a century and are not going to withdraw. The USA and Japan held the latest joint exercise last year.

The delivery of new radars to Crimea and the Far East confirms the strategic significance of the directions for national security.

It is a scheduled and necessary replacement. The new radars detect targets in a broad range of altitudes. Low-altitude speed craft, cruise and hypersonic missiles cannot hide from them. The automatic control system in charge of rapid collection and processing of information is the backbone of modern air defense. At, present, air defense units operate in single information space and exchange data between command posts and units electronically and in real-time. It is necessary for proper operation of modern air defense.

Today it is impossible to transmit target coordinates by telephone, as they previously did. The adversary will complete his combat missions and escape while the talk lasts. Nebo-M and Podlet are highly mobile and can be delivered to the necessary place by warships or airlifters, Bizhev said.

The new generation of radars operates the Russian element base and uses phased array technology. Designers said it increases the capabilities and simplifies maintenance.

Nebo-M can detect aircraft and ballistic missiles at a distance of one thousand kilometers. Air and hypersonic targets are detected at 600 km which is twice above the range of previous generations. Stealth technologies pose no problem for the new radars. The Defense Ministry said radar troops would receive at least twenty units of the hardware by 2021.

Podlet complements Nebo-M by detecting small targets at low altitudes of dozens and hundreds of meters. The main mission is to detect and track massive cruise missile strikes, as well as aircraft which try to break through the air defense at low altitude. The radar reliably operates in passive and active jamming. It was designed for interaction with the latest air defense and can provide guidance to S-400.

Fundament-M is carried by one vehicle in contrast to predecessors. It analyzes information from various radars and produces a single real-time picture of the airspace.

Nebo-M – Program
The work within the framework of the R & D project “Sky-M” began in the late 1990s. In 1999, a decision was made to place large-sized system modules on the chassis of the Bryansk Automobile Plant. Initially it was planned to develop an early warning RLSC with characteristics approximately corresponding to 55ZH6, but with increased mobility. Later, radar modules of the decimeter and centimeter ranges were included in the RLC 55ZH6M.

In 2008, a prototype of the built-in ACL module (ROC “Nebo-M”) was fully manufactured. In 2008, the first stage of the preliminary tests of a prototype of the 55Zh6M radar as part of the meter radar module RLM-M and the control cabin of the KU RLK was completed with a positive result. In 2009, ground tests were carried out and a prototype of the 55ZH6M radar in the configuration of the RLM-M, RLM-D and KU RLK with the built-in ACL module created by a separate ROC was presented for state tests.

According to Protocol No. 13 dated March 18, 2010, summing up the results of the tender for the supply of a prototype RLK, the competition was held by the Ministry of Defense of Russia, the winner – NIIIRT. In 2010, the first stage was completed and the second stage of the state tests of the prototype according to the design work “Nebo-M” was started, the stage of updating the working design documentation according to the results of the first stage of state tests was completed.

The new generation radar system aimed to perform missions of air defence and radar support of the anti-aircraft missile troops in difficult jamming situation was shown at the exposition of the Aerospace Defence forces at the International military and technical forum “Army-2015”, which was held June 2015 at the premises of the “Patriot” park for cultural and recreational activities of the Russian Armed Forces (Kubinka, Moscow Region).

In accordance with the State Defence Order, two radio-technical regiments, Western Military District, located in Leningrad region and Karelia, received latest Nebo-UM radars. The Nebo-UM is a modernized version of the Nebo-U radar. The radar is intended to survey the air space, locate various targets and define coordinates. The station can locate and track down aircraft and cruise missiles, as well as ballistic targets.

Crews of S-400 air defense systems have destroyed air targets at the Ashuluk proving ground, the Defense Ministry said on 28 September 2017. “During a tactical exercise the crews of air defense and radio-technical forces and a division level command post practiced redeployment to the Ashuluk proving ground and counter-measures against an enemy air raid and carried out launches of missiles against targets,” the ministry’s news release runs. Taking part in the exercise were crews of the S-400 missile systems, radars Nebo-M, Kasta 2-2 and Podlyot.

Nebo-M requires half as many people as the old complex, since the new radar has fully digital automatic data processing, and the complex is able to classify targets. Specialists of the Center for the training of anti-aircraft missile forces VKA them work on the calculations for these radars . Mozhaisky. The educational complex “Nebo-M” has been operating there since 2013, more than 250 people have trained there. Four radar stations “Nebo-M” and “Nebo-UM” in 2015 began work in Transbaikalia, Khabarovsk and Primorye.