Küplü, Turkey – Küplü (Greek: Κιουπλιά-Kiouplia) is a town in Meriç district of Edirne Province, Turkey. At 41°06′N 26°21′E Küplü is almost at the Greece border. The population of Küplü is 2760 as of 2011. In the 19th century Küplü was a Greek settlement in Eastern Thrace. But, according to the 1923 population exchange agreement between Greece and Turkey, Greeks were replaced by Muslim refugees from Greece. The 1924 Muslim refugees were from Karacaova /Karacaabad (Almopia) region of Greece. Karacaova /Karacaabad (Almopia), is a city in northern Greece and the capital of the Pella regional unit, in the Central Macedonia region of Greece. The center of Karacaova / Karacaabad region was Subotsko ( Macedonian: С’ботско / S’botsko , Bulgarian : Съботско , S’botsko, Sabotsko, Subotsko (Sıbıska or Sabusko in Turkish) Aridaia, Ardea (Αριδαία, Αρδέα) with its new Greek name Aridea. Sabotsko (Slav name) (Voden, district name) Aridea (Almopia) (Greek changed name). Edessa (Voden), until 1923 Vodena, is a city in northern Greece and the capital of the Pella regional unit, in the Central Macedonia region of Greece. It was also the capital of the defunct province of the same name.


Meriç (Evros/Maritsa) River

History

Karacaova /Karacaabad (Almopia)

Almopia (Greek: Αλμωπία), or Enotia, also known in the Middle Ages as Moglena (Greek: Μογλενά, Macedonian and Bulgarian: Меглен or Мъглен), is a municipality and a former province (επαρχία) of the Pella regional unit in Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Aridaia. The municipality has an area of 985.817 km2. and its population was 27,556 as of 2011. Karacaova was a town associated with the Sanjak of Thessaloniki during the Ottoman period.


Karacaova (Almopia), Greece

Name and history

The name Almopia (Ancient Greek: Ἀλμωπία, Almōpia, Meglen (Almopia)) derives from the Almopes (Ἀλμῶπες), a Paeonian tribe that originally inhabited the area during Antiquity. The Almopes traced their descent to the eponymous mythological figure of Almops, son of Poseidon and Helle. According to Thucidydes, the Almopes were expelled from the region when it was incorporated into the ancient Macedonian kingdom during the reign of Alexander I (r. 498–454 BC). The 2nd-century astronomer and geographer Claudius Ptolemy records three cities in the region in his Geography: Horma (Ὅρμα), Europos (Εὔρωπος) and Apsalos (Ἄψαλος).

In the early Byzantine period, the area was renamed to Enotia (Greek: Ενωτία) after a nearby fortress, probably in the vicinity of modern Notia. The name was revived between 1915 and 1927 for the Greek province as well.

In the later Middle Ages, the area was known as Moglena (Greek: Μογλενά, Macedonian: Меглен, Bulgarian: Мъглен), from the Slavic word for “fog”. Until the early 11th century, Moglena was a province of the First Bulgarian Empire. Captured by the Byzantine emperor Basil II in 1015, it is attested as the seat of a bishopric in 1020, and as capital of its own theme in 1086. The area remained under Byzantine rule until the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, when it was captured by Tsar Kaloyan of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It was incorporate in the Serbian Empire by Stefan Dušan in 1346. Moglena was inhabited mainly by Megleno-Romanians and Slavic people. In Ottoman times, the region was also known by its Turkish name Karacova, Karatzova or Karadjova valley (“Black Valley”, Greek: Καρατζόβα).

Until the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) and the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1924, Muslim community was a large part of the regions of Moglena.

Municipality Almopia (Karacova/Meglen)

The municipality Almopia was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units:

Aridaia
Exaplatanos

Province of Almopia

The province of Almopia (Επαρχία Αλμωπίας) was one of the three provinces of Pella Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality of Almopia.

Küplü was – a Greek village in Eastern Thrace until 1922- emptied after the Turkish liberation war when the Greeks left here and went to Greece. After the 1924 great exchange agreement, the Muslim refugees from Almopia region (Karacaova / Karacaabad) of Greece were placed in Küplü. The Muslim immigrants, located in Küplü, consist of three Muslim village residents in Almopia region of Greece (Karacaova/ Karacaabad). These are the villages of Tsrneshevo, Garefeio (Γαρέφειο), Trstenik (Tresnik in Turkish) Thiriopetra (Θηριόπετρα) and Gabrishta, Dorothea (Δωροθέα) respectively.

According to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne signed between Turkey and Greece on July 24, 1923, and effective on 6 August 1924, the Muslim population of the region was forced to emigrate to Turkey, and a large number of Greek Orthodox refugees from Anatolia and Eastern Thrace were placed in their place.

A Group of Greek Refugees from Lagyna (Λαγυνά), visited Küplü after the 1924 Great Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey

In 1924, the Greeks who left Küplü (Κιουπλιa) were placed in the village of Lagyna (Λαγυνά), affiliated to Thessaloniki. A group of Greek visitors (Συλλογος Λαγυνων εκδρομη στο Κιουπλιa) from the village of Lagyna (Λαγυνά) visited Küplü (Κιουπλιa) on 21.04.2012.

Lagyna (Greek: Λαγυνά, Old name Laina) is a village and a community of the Langadas municipality. Before the 2011 local government reform it was part of the municipality of Langadas, of which it was a municipal district.The 2011 census recorded 3,591 inhabitants in the village. The community of Lagyna covers an area of 13.435 km2. According to the statistics of Vasil Kanchov (“Macedonia, Ethnography and Statistics”), 700 Greek Christians lived in the village in 1900.

Lausanne Peace Treaty VI. Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations Signed at Lausanne, January 30, 1923.

The Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Greek Government have agreed upon the following provisions:

Article 1

As from the 1st May, 1923, there shall take place a compulsory exchange of Turkish nationals of the Greek Orthodox religion established in Turkish territory, and of Greek nationals of the Moslem religion established in Greek territory.

These persons shall not return to live in Turkey or Greece respectively without the authorisation of the Turkish Government or of the Greek Government respectively.

Article 2

The following persons shall not be included in the exchange provided for in Article 1:

a)The Greek inhabitants of Constantinople.

b)The Moslem inhabitants of Western Thrace.

All Greeks who were already established before the 30th October, 1918, within the areas under the Prefecture of the City of Constantinople, as defined by the law of 1912, shall be considered as Greek inhabitants of Constantinople.

Moslems established in the region to the east of the frontier line laid down in 1918 by the Treaty of Bucharest shall be considered as Moslem inhabitants of Western Thrace.

Article 3

Those Greeks and Moslems who have already, and since the 18th October, 1912, left the territories the Greek and Turkish inhabitants of which are to be respectively exchanged, shall be considered as included in the exchange provided for in Article 1.

The expression “emigrant” in the present Convention includes all physical and juridical persons who have been obliged to emigrate or have emigrated since the 18th October, 1912.

Article 4

All able-bodied men belonging to the Greek population, whose families have already left Turkish territory, and who are now detained in Turkey, shall constitute the first instalment of Greeks sent to Greece in accordance with the present Convention.

Article 5

Subject to the provisions of Articles 9 and 10 of the present Convention, the rights of property and monetary assets of Greeks in Turkey or Moslems in Greece shall not be prejudiced in consequence of the exchange to be carried out under the present Convention.

Article 6

No obstacle may be placed for any reason whatever in the way of the departure of a person belonging to the populations which are to be exchanged. In the event of an emigrant having received a definite sentence of imprisonment, or a sentence which is not yet definitive, or of his being the object of criminal proceedings, he shall be handed over by the authorities of the prosecuting country to the authorities of the country whither he is going, in order that he may serve his sentence or be brought to trial.

Article 7

The emigrants will lose the nationality of the country which they are leaving, and will acquire the nationality of the country of their destination, upon their arrival in the territory of the latter country.

Such emigrants as have already left one or other of the two countries and have not yet acquired their new nationality, shall acquire that nationality on the date of the signature of the present Convention.

Article 8

Emigrants shall be free to take away with them or to arrange for the transport of their movable property of every kind, without being liable on this account to the payment of any export duty or any other tax.

Similarly, the members of each community (including the personnel of mosques, tekkes, meddresses, churches, convents, schools, hospitals, societies, associations and juridical persons, or other foundations of any nature whatever) which is to leave the territory of one of the Contracting States under the present Convention, shall have the right to take away freely or to arrange for the transport of the movable property belonging to their communities.

The fullest facilities for transport shall be provided by the authorities of the two countries, upon the recommendation of the Mixed Commission provided for in Article 11.

Emigrants who may not be able to take away all or part of their movable property can leave it behind. In that event, the local authorities shall be required to draw up, the emigrant in question being given an opportunity to be heard, an inventory and valuation of the property left by him. Procès-verbaux containing the inventory and the valuation of the movable property left by the emigrant shall be drawn up in four copies, one of which shall be kept by the local authorities, the second transmitted to the Mixed Commission provided for in Article 11 to serve as the basis for the liquidation provided for by Article 9, the third shall be handed to the Government of the country to which the emigrant is going, and the fourth to the emigrant himself.

Article 9

Immovable property, whether rural or urban, belonging to emigrants, or to the communities mentioned in Article 8, and the movable property left by these emigrants or communities, shall be liquidated in accordance with the following provisions by the Mixed Commission provided for in Article 11.

Property situated in the districts to which the compulsory exchange applies and belonging to religious or benevolent institutions of the communities established in a district to which the exchange does not apply, shall likewise be liquidated under the same conditions.

Article 10

The movable and immovable property belonging to persons who have already left the territory of the High Contracting Parties and are considered, in accordance with Article 3 of the present Convention, as being included in the exchange of populations, shall be liquidated in accordance with Article 9. This liquidation shall take place independently of all measures of any kind whatever, which, under the laws passed and the regulations of any kind made in Greece and in Turkey since the 18th October, 1912, or in any other way, have resulted in any restriction on rights of ownership over the property in question, such as confiscation, forced sale, &c. In the event of the property mentioned in this Article or in Article 9 having been submitted to a measure of this kind, its value shall be fixed by the Commission provided for in Article 11, as if the measures in question had not been applied.

As regards expropriated property, the Mixed Commission shall undertake a fresh valuation of such property, if it has been expropriated since the 18th October, 1912, having previously belonged to persons liable to the exchange of populations in the two countries, and is situated in territories to which the exchange applies. The Commission shall fix for the benefit of the owners such compensation as will repair the injury which the Commission has ascertained. The total amount of this compensation shall be carried to the credit of these owners and to the debit of the Government on whose territory the expropriated property is situated.

In the event of any persons mentioned in Articles 8 and 9 not having received the income from property, the enjoyment of which they have lost in one way or another, the restoration of the amount of this income shall be guaranteed to them on the basis of the average yield of the property before the war, and in accordance with the methods to be laid down by the Mixed Commission.

The Mixed Commission provided for in Article 11. when proceeding to the liquidation of Wakf property in Greece and of the rights and interests connected therewith, and to the liquidation of similar foundations belonging to Greeks in Turkey, shall follow the principles laid down in previous Treaties with a view to fully safeguarding the rights and interests of these foundations and of the individuals interested in them.

The Mixed Commission provided for in Article 11 shall be entrusted with the duty of executing these provisions.

Article 11

Within one month from the coming into force of the present Convention a Mixed Commission shall be set up in turkey or in Greece consisting of four members representing each of the High Contracting Parties, and of Nations from among nationals of Powers which did not take part in the war of 1914-1918. The Presidency of the Commission shall be exercised in turn by each of these three neutral members.

The Mixed Commission shall have the right to set up, in such places as it may appear to them necessary, Sub-Commissions working under its order. Each such Sub-Commission shall consist of a Turkish member, a Greek member and a neutral President to be designated by the Mixed Commission. The Mixed Commission shall decide the powers to be delegated to the Sub-Commission.

Article 12

The duties of the Mixed Commission shall be to supervise and facilitate the emigration provided for in the present Convention, and to carry out the liquidation of the movable and immovable property for which provision is made in Articles 9 and 10.

The Commission shall settle the methods to be followed as regards the emigration and liquidation mentioned above.

In a general way the Mixed Commission shall have full power to take the measures necessitated by the execution of the present Convention and to decide all questions to which this Convention may give rise.

The decisions of the Mixed Commission shall be taken by a majority.

All disputes relating to property, rights and interests which are to be liquidated shall be settled definitely by the Commission.

Article 13

The Mixed Commission shall have full power to cause the valuation to be made of the movable and immovable property which is to be liquidated under the present Convention, the interested parties being given a hearing or being duly summoned so that they may be heard.

The basis for the valuation of the property to be liquidated shall be the value of the property in gold currency.

Article 14

The Commission shall transmit to the owner concerned a declaration stating the sum due to him in respect of the property of which he has been dispossessed, and such property shall remain at the disposal of the Government on whose territory it is situated.

The total sums due on the basis of these declarations shall constitute a Government debt from the country where the liquidation takes place to the Government of the country to which the emigrant belongs. The emigrant shall in principle be entitled to receive in the country to which he emigrates, as representing the sums due to him, property of a value equal to and of the same nature as that which he has left behind.

Once every six months an account shall be drawn up of the sums due by the respective Governments on the basis of the declarations as above.

When the liquidation is completed, if the sums of money due to both sides correspond, the accounts relating thereto shall be balanced. If a sum remains due from one of the Governments to the other Government after a balance has been struck, the debit balance shall be paid in cash. If the debtor Governments requests a postponement in making this payment, the Commission may (……..) such postponement, provided that the sum due be paid in three annuities at most. The Commission shall fix the interest to be paid during the period of postponement.

If the sum to be paid is fairly large and requires longer postponement, the debtor Government shall pay in cash a sum to be fixed by the Mixed Commission, up to a maximum of 20 per cent. of the total due, and shall issue in respect of the balance loan certificates bearing such interest as the Mixed Commission may fix, to be said off within 20 years at most. The debtor Government shall assign to the service of these loans pledges approved by the Commission, which shall be administered and of which the revenues shall be encashed by the International Commission in Greece and by the Council of the Public Debt at Constantinople. In the absence of agreement in regard to these pledges, they shall be selected by the Council of the League of Nations.

Article 15

With a view to facilitating emigration, funds shall be advanced to the Mixed Commission by the States concerned, under conditions laid down by the said Commission.

Article 16

The Turkish and Greek Governments shall come to an agreement with the Mixed Commission provided for in Article 11 in regard to all questions concerning the notification to be made to persons who are to leave the territory of Turkey and Greece under the present Convention, and concerning the ports to which these persons are to go for the purpose of being transported to the country of their destination.

High Contracting Parties undertake mutually that no pressure direct or indirect shall be exercised on the populations which are to be exchanged with a view to making than leave their homes or abandon their property before the date fixed for their departure. They likewise undertake to impose on the emigrants who have left or who are to leave the country no special taxes or dues. No obstacle shall be placed in the way of the inhabitants of the districts excepted from the exchange under Article 2 exercising freely their right to remain in or return to those districts and to enjoy to the full their liberties and rights of property in Turkey and in Greece. This provision shall not be invoked as a motive for preventing the free alienation of property belonging to inhabitants of the said regions which are excepted from the exchange, or the voluntary departure of those among these inhabitants who wish to leave Turkey or Greece.

Article 17

The expenses entailed by the maintenance and working of the Mixed Commission and of the organisations dependent on it shall be borne by the Governments concerned in proportions to be fixed by the Commission.

Article 18

The High Contracting Parties undertakes to introduce in their respective laws such modifications as may be necessary with a view to ensuring the execution of the present Convention.

Article 19

The present Convention shall have the same force and effect as between the High Contracting Parties as if it formed part of the Treaty of Peace to be concluded with Turkey. It shall come into force immediately after the ratification of the said Turkey by the two High Contracting Parties.

In faith whereof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, whose respective full Powers have been found in good and due form, have signed the present Convention.

Done at Lausanne, the 30th January, 1923, in three copies, ons of which shall be transmitted to the Greek Government, one to the Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, and the third shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the French Republic, which shall deliver certified copies to the other Powers signatory of the Treaty of Peace with Turkey.

(L.S.) E.K.Veniselos

(L.S.) D.Caclamanos

(L.S.) Ismet

(L.S.) Dr.Ryza Nour

(L.S.) Hassan

Protocol
The undersigned Turkish Plenipotentiaries, duly authorised to that effect, declare that, without waiting for the coming into force of the Convention with Greece of even date, relating to the exchange of the Greek and Turkish populations, and by way to exception to Article 1 of that Convention the Turkish Government, on the signature of the Treaty of Peace, will release the able-bodied men referred to in Article 4 of the said Convention, and will provide for their departure.

Done at Lausanne, the 30th January, 1923.

Ismet

Dr. Ryza Nour

Hassan

Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Greek: Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, romanized: I Antallagí, Ottoman Turkish: مبادله‎, romanized: Mübâdele) stemmed from the “Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations” signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey. It involved at least 1.6 million people (1,221,489 Greek Orthodox from Asia Minor, Eastern Thrace, the Pontic Alps and the Caucasus, and 355,000–400,000 Muslims from Greece), most of whom were forcibly made refugees and de jure denaturalized from their homelands.

The initial request for an exchange of population came from Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos in a letter he submitted to the League of Nations on October 16, 1922, as a way to normalize relations de jure, since the majority of surviving Greek inhabitants of Turkey had fled to Greece by that time. Venizelos proposed a “compulsory exchange of Greek and Turkish populations,” and asked Fridtjof Nansen to make the necessary arrangements. The new state of Turkey also envisioned the population exchange as a way to formalize and make permanent the flight of its native Greek Orthodox peoples while initiating a new exodus of a smaller number (400,000) of Muslims from Greece as a way to provide settlers for the newly-depopulated Orthodox villages of Turkey; Greece meanwhile saw it as a way to provide propertyless Greek Orthodox refugees from Turkey with lands of expelled Muslims.

This major compulsory population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion, was based not on language or ethnicity, but upon religious identity, and involved nearly all the indigenous Orthodox Christian peoples of Turkey (the Rûm “Roman/Byzantine” millet), including even Armenian- and Turkish-speaking Orthodox groups, and on the other side most of the native Muslims of Greece, including even Greek-speaking Muslim citizens, such as Cretan Turks. Each group were native peoples, citizens, and in cases even veterans, of the state which expelled them, and neither had representation in the state purporting to speak for them in the exchange treaty. Historians have described the exchange as a legalized form of ethnic cleansing.

Population

As of 2021, Küplü town had a population of 2.264.

Culture

Küplü town has formal schools that provide education at the level of Primary School (Küplü Gazi İlkokulu), Secondary School (Küplü Şehit Öğretmen Zeki Savruk Ortaokulu, Küplü İmam Hatip Ortaokulu) and High School (Küplü Şehit Sercan Fidan Anadolu Lisesi), which are also open to educational activities for students from the surrounding villages. In the town, the rate of attendance to higher education after high school education is quite high.

Geography

The Meriç (Evros/Maritsa) River flows west of Küplü town in the Meriç District of Edirne province. The distance between this river and the village is one and a half kilometers. This part is a fertile plain. It extends south in lanes. The east of the town is surrounded by ridges. Its elevation is 125 meters above sea level. In the north there is the town of Subaşı 4 km away,

In the south there is the village of Adasarhanli 3 km away, in the Northeast there is the village of Büyükaltıağaç 4 km away. Meriç district is located 11 km north of Küplü. Küplü reaches Meriç district with 11 km asphalt road and Uzunköprü district with the same road. The distance of Küplü to Edirne is 102 km. Küplü also has road connections with Ipsala, Keşan and Enez districts.

Maritza/Evros/Meriç Sub-basin with Arda and Ergene Rivers (sub-basin shared by Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey)

The Maritza/Evros/Meriç sub-basin, including Arda, Tundja and Ergene tributaries, is one of the major river systems located in the eastern Balkans, with a total length of 550 km and a total catchment area of 39,000 km². About 66% belongs to Bulgaria, 28% to Turkey and 6% to Greece. About 218 km of the river are located in Greece, with 203 km of the river forming the borderline with Turkey.

Maritsa/Evros/Meriç river itself has 321 km and a catchment of 21,083 km² in Bulgaria and 3,340 km² in Greece. Major cities are Pazardik (130,000 inhabitants), Plovdiv (340,000 inhabitants), Stara Zagora (150,000) and Haskovo (80,000) as well as Edirne on Turkish river side (115,000 inhabitants). Both these municipalities and the many industries located in the basin cause a lot of pollution.

The delta area (about 150 km²) is a very important ecological site, protected under the RAMSAR convention. The mean discharge of the river at the mouth is about 1,610 m³/s. Water is mainly used for irrigation and water supply of cities and villages.

Two major tributaries of the Maritza have transboundary sub-catchments themselves:

• Arda river flows eastward from the Eastern Rhodope mountains (240 km and 5,200 km² in south-eastern Bulgaria; only 30 km and 345 km² in Greece) including Kardjali (60,000 inhabitants) and includes various big reservoirs.
• Tundja river (350 km length and 7,982 km² in Bulgaria; ). Main cities are Kazanlak, Sliven (136,000 inhabitants) and Yambol (110,000). Please see chapter 3.15.

The tributaries Ergene (from Easter Thrace/Turkey) and Arda (Bulgaria and Greece) may induce severe floods and cause a lot of damage to downstream areas.

Economy

The economy of the town is based on agriculture and animal husbandry. The people of the town benefit from paddy cultivation from the Meriç (Evros/Maritsa) River, which passes to the west of the town. The most produced crop is paddy. Wheat, sunflower, broom, corn and beans are produced respectively. It has a reputation for beans around.

Küplü was settled at the end of the migration from Almopia (Karacaova/ Karacaabad) region of Greece today, and silkworm farming was also carried out until the 1960-70’s, but today it was completely abandoned due to low returns and laborious work.

In addition to paddy Agriculture, other agricultural products are grown on fertile soils with irrigation facilities on the Meriç (Evros/Maritsa) River. Agricultural diversity has increased with the irrigation of agricultural areas of the Ridges. Large head livestock and small head livestock activities contribute to the economy.

Küplü Agricultural Credit Cooperative (2819 sayılı Küplü Tarım Kredi Kooperatifi) provide significant support to agroproducers. In addition, the Agricultural Development Cooperative (SS Küplü Tarımsal Kalkınma Kooperatifi) also maintains paddy fields for the agroproducers. There are restaurants serving in the gastronomy sector with fish and other meat products. Cafes and shops also meet the important current commercial needs of the town.

Health

Edirne Meriç Küplü Family Health Center (Küplü Aile Sağlığı Merkezi) is located at Küplü town in Edirne province. One can call at +902844354009 to make an appointment with a doctor located in Edirne Meric Küplü Family Health Center.

Küplü Municipality (Küplü Belediyesi)

Küplü is a municipality in Edirne Province as seat of a third-order administrative division, Meriç District, Edirne Province, Turkey. Küplü municipality was established in 1960. Küplü municipality Mayor is Gökmen ALTAY. One can call Küplü Municipality at +90 284 435 40 28.